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Sharing data between data owners

In iCure it is possible to allow multiple data owners to access specific instances of Patient, DataSample and HealthcareElement.

By default, the data owner who creates an entity is the only one that has access to it. However, it is possible for the creator to share the entity with others by using the giveAccessTo methods in the respective apis. This allows selected data owners to retrieve the entity and decrypt its content.

Instantiate the apis for different users

In the following examples we will use three different instances of MedTechApis, to perform the requests as different users. The api we use are hcp1Api and hcp2Api to act as two different healthcare practitioners data owners (hcp1 and hcp2, respectively) and pApi to act as a patient data owner (p).

Sharing data other users

First create a new entity, in this example hcp1 creates a patient:

// hcp1 creates a new patient
const note = 'Winter is coming'
const patient = await hcp1Api.patientApi.createOrModifyPatient(
new Patient({ firstName: 'John', lastName: 'Snow', note }),

hcp1 can now share the newly created patient with other data owners, no matter if they are other healthcare practitioners, patients or devices.

To do this hcp1 simply has to use giveAccessTo method from the patientApi. This method takes two parameters: the entity that will be shared (in the example patient), and the id of the data owner with whom the entity will be shared.

// hcp1 shares the information of `patient` with hcp2
const updatedPatient = await hcp1Api.patientApi.giveAccessTo(
// hcp1 shares the information of `patient` with p (a different patient that is also a data owner)
await hcp1Api.patientApi.giveAccessTo(updatedPatient, hcp1Api.dataOwnerApi.getDataOwnerIdOf(pUser))

The giveAccessTo method modifies the shared entity and will fail if the version of the input entity doesn't match the latest version.

In the previous example we shared the new patient first with hcp2, then with p. Since the first call modifies the patient entity, we cannot pass again patient to the second invocation of giveAccessTo, but we have to pass the updatedPatient we received from the first invocation. Failing to do so will trigger a conflict in the database and the invocation will return an error.


A patient is treated as any other data owner, and can also get access to data of other patients. This can be useful for example in situations where a patient wants to share their medical information with a close relative.

Sharing data created by someone else

Users are allowed to share any entity to which they have access, even if they were not the original creators. In this example hcp1 creates a healthcare element and shares it with p.

// hcp1 creates a new healthcare element
const description = 'The patient has been diagnosed Pararibulitis'
const healthcareElement = await hcp1Api.healthcareElementApi.createOrModifyHealthcareElement(
new HealthcareElement({
description: description,
codes: new Set([
new CodingReference({
id: 'SNOMEDCT|617|20020131',
type: 'SNOMEDCT',
code: '617',
version: '20020131',
openingDate: new Date('2019-10-12').getTime(),
// hcp1 shares `healthcareElement` with p
await hcp1Api.healthcareElementApi.giveAccessTo(

Now also p can share the healthcare element with other data owners.

// p retrieves `healthcareElement` and shares it with hcp2
await pApi.healthcareElementApi.giveAccessTo(
await pApi.healthcareElementApi.getHealthcareElement(,

Sharing data as a patient

Patient data owners can create entities and share them with other data owners. In this example p creates a data sample and shares it with hcp1, then hcp1 shares it also with hcp2.

// p creates a data sample
const contentString = 'Hello world'
const dataSample = await pApi.dataSampleApi.createOrModifyDataSampleFor(,
new DataSample({
labels: new Set([new CodingReference({ type: 'IC-TEST', code: 'TEST' })]),
content: { en: { stringValue: contentString } },
openingDate: 20220929083400,
comment: 'This is a comment',
// p shares the data sample with hcp1
await pApi.dataSampleApi.giveAccessTo(dataSample, pApi.dataOwnerApi.getDataOwnerIdOf(hcp1User))
// hcp1 shares the data sample with hcp2
await hcp1Api.dataSampleApi.giveAccessTo(
await hcp1Api.dataSampleApi.getDataSample(,

Recovering shared data

Patients, HealthcareElements and DataSamples are encrypted end-to-end. This means that if a data owner loses their private key they will not be able to access the encrypted entities anymore, and not even iCure can help to recover this data, since iCure can never access the encrypted content of entities. There are various mechanisms in place to mitigate this issue, and data sharing is central to one of them.

If Alice has shared an entity with Bob both Alice and Bob can access the encrypted content of the entity. This means that if Alice loses her private key she can ask Bob to share with her all entities she shared with him in the past, allowing her to regain access to these entities.

You can learn more about how this and other data recovery methods in iCure work by heading to the Explanations